Comparative Study Regarding the Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Pine ( Pinus nigra and P. sylvestris) Bark Extracts

Antioxidants (Basel). 2021 Feb 22;10(2):327. doi: 10.3390/antiox10020327.


The bark resulted after the industrial processing of wood represents a byproduct of the forestry industry, used in many suboptimal ways, being considered a natural waste. Currently, it has been highlighted that the bark of different woody plants may be an important source of several bioactive compounds, with various beneficial biological functions. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the chemical composition and biological activities of two different pine species (Pinus nigra and Pinus sylvestris) bark extracts. Ultrasound (UAE) and microwave (MAE) assisted extractions were performed in order to obtain the extracts. The total polyphenol (TPC) and total tannin (TTC) contents of the extracts were assessed via the Folin-Ciocâlteu method. The volatile and polyphenolic compounds were identified and quantified via a GC/MS analysis and an UPLC-PDA analysis, respectively. The antioxidant activity (AOA) was evaluated using the DPPH and ABTS assays, while the antibacterial activity was assessed using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) protocol. The results showed that the Pinus sylvestris bark extracts obtained by UAE had a higher TPC, TTC and AOA, while the Pinus nigra bark extracts obtained by MAE had higher volatile compounds content (mainly α-pinene and β-pinene). Moreover, the inhibition of the bacterial growth was more efficient in the case of Pinus sylvestris extracts, Gram-positive bacteria being the most affected, while Gram-negative strains presented a relative resistance to the tested extract concentrations. These results may indicate the potential use of the pine bark extracts as antioxidant or antibacterial agents.

Keywords: Pinus nigra; Pinus sylvestris; antibacterial activity; antioxidant; catechin; polyphenols; volatile compounds.