Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Anthocyanins Using Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents and Their Incorporation in Edible Films

Molecules. 2021 Feb 12;26(4):984. doi: 10.3390/molecules26040984.


Extracts rich in bioactive compounds added to edible films have allowed the development of active packaging that increases the shelf life of food. However, it is necessary to search for solvents that are nontoxic and not harmful to the environment, with natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) being an attractive and easily synthesized alternative. This research aimed to design NADES by lyophilization to be used in the extraction of anthocyanins from the Chilean Luma chequen (Molina) A. Gray berry, and subsequently adding them to the matrix of edible ƙ-carrageenan films. For this purpose, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was used and the anthocyanin content was evaluated with the pH differential method. The antioxidant capacity of extracts was determined by DPPH assay and the antibacterial capacity by diffusion agar tests. The results obtained indicate that the designed NADES are efficient at extracting anthocyanins, reaching concentrations between 81.1 and 327.6 mg eq cyanidin 3-glucoside/100 g dw of L. chequen (Molina) A. Gray. The extracts reached inhibition diameters between 5 and 34 mm against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella typhi strains. Once the extracts were incorporated into ƙ-carrageenan films, active edible films with antioxidant and antibacterial capacities were obtained.

Keywords: active compounds; active packaging; berries; carrageenan; green chemistry; green extraction; medicinal plants.

MeSH terms

  • Anthocyanins / chemistry
  • Anthocyanins / isolation & purification*
  • Antioxidants / chemistry*
  • Antioxidants / isolation & purification
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Carrageenan / chemistry
  • Carrageenan / pharmacology
  • Edible Films*
  • Food Packaging*
  • Fruit / chemistry
  • Humans
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / isolation & purification
  • Solvents / chemistry
  • Ultrasonics


  • Anthocyanins
  • Antioxidants
  • Plant Extracts
  • Solvents
  • cyanidin-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside
  • Carrageenan