Afatinib therapy in case of EGFR G724S emergence as resistance mechanism to osimertinib

Anticancer Drugs. 2021 Aug 1;32(7):758-762. doi: 10.1097/CAD.0000000000001064.

Abstract

Osimertinib is a third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) used both as the first-line treatment of EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer patients and in second-line after T790M-positive disease progression to first- or second-generation TKIs. Unfortunately, patients unavoidably experience disease progression to osimertinib and the current research is focused on resistance mechanisms and the relative therapeutic strategy. We report the case of a patient with advanced EGFR-mutated (exon 19 deletion and T790M-positive) non-small cell lung cancer who developed disease progression to osimertinib characterized by the loss of T790M concurrently with the emergence of G724S EGFR mutation, which was tackled by subsequent afatinib treatment. Next-generation sequencing molecular study of rebiopsy at time of progression to osimertinib revealed the persistence of EGFR exon 19 deletion, loss of T790M with a new G724S EGFR mutation; other concomitant mechanisms were excluded. Retrospective analysis of cell-free DNA revealed the emergence of G724S EGFR mutation four months before the radiologically-proven disease progression. The patient, after chemotherapy, was treated with afatinib with clinical and radiological benefit. Our case report contributes to increase the knowledge on acquired resistance mechanisms to osimertinib treatment, and it shows, for the first time, the efficacy of afatinib in the case of T790M loss and emergence of G724S EGFR mutation.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acrylamides / therapeutic use
  • Afatinib / therapeutic use*
  • Aniline Compounds / therapeutic use
  • Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy*
  • Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / genetics
  • Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / drug effects
  • Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics
  • ErbB Receptors / genetics
  • Exons
  • Humans
  • Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Lung Neoplasms / genetics
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use*

Substances

  • Acrylamides
  • Aniline Compounds
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • osimertinib
  • Afatinib
  • EGFR protein, human
  • ErbB Receptors