Effectiveness of CRSCE-Based De-escalation Training on Reducing Physical Restraint in Psychiatric Hospitals: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

Front Psychiatry. 2021 Feb 16:12:576662. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.576662. eCollection 2021.


Background: The use of physical restraint (PR) causes clinical and ethical issues; great efforts are being made to reduce the use of PR in psychiatric hospitals globally. Aim: This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of CRSCE-based de-escalation training on reducing PR in psychiatric hospitals. Method: The proposed study adopted cluster randomized controlled trial design. Twelve wards of a psychiatric hospital were randomly allocated to experimental group (n = 6) and control group (n = 6). Wards of control group were assigned to routine training regarding PR; wards of experimental group underwent the same routine training while additionally received CRSCE-based de-escalation training. Before and after CRSCE-based de-escalation training, the frequency of and the duration of PR, and the numbers and level of unexpected events caused by PR, were recorded. Results: After CRSCE-based de-escalation training, the frequency (inpatients and patients admitted within 24 h) of and the duration of PR of experimental group, showed a descending trend and were significantly lower than those of control group (P < 0.01); compared to control group, the numbers of unexpected events (level II and level III) and injury caused by PR of experimental group had been markedly reduced (P < 0.05). Conclusions: CRSCE-based de-escalation training would be useful to reduce the use of PR and the unexpected event caused by PR in psychiatric hospitals. The modules of CRSCE-based de-escalation training can be adopted for future intervention minimizing clinical use of PR. Clinical Trial Registration: This study was registered at Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (Registration Number: ChiCTR1900022211).

Keywords: coercion; de-escalation; physical restraint; psychiatric hospitals; training.