Background and purpose: Patients with acute ischemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion and favorable tissue-level collaterals (TLCs) likely have robust cortical venous outflow (VO). We hypothesized that favorable VO predicts robust TLC and good clinical outcomes.
Methods: Multicenter retrospective cohort study of consecutive acute ischemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion patients who underwent thrombectomy triage. Included patients had interpretable prethrombectomy computed tomography, computed tomography angiography, and cerebral perfusion imaging. TLCs were measured on cerebral perfusion studies using the hypoperfusion intensity ratio (volume ratio of brain tissue with [Tmax >10 s/Tmax >6 s]). VO was determined by opacification of the vein of Labbé, sphenoparietal sinus, and superficial middle cerebral vein on computed tomography angiography as 0, not visible; 1, moderate opacification; and 2, full. Clinical and demographic data were determined from the electronic medical record. Using multivariable regression analyses, we determined the association between VO and (1) favorable TLC status (defined as hypoperfusion intensity ratio ≤0.4) and (2) good functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score, 0-2).
Results: Six hundred forty-nine patients met inclusion criteria. Patients with favorable VO were younger (median age, 72 [interquartile range (IQR), 62-80] versus 77 [IQR, 66-84] years), had a lower baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (median, 12 [IQR, 7-17] versus 19 [IQR, 13-20]), and had a higher Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score (median, 9 [IQR, 7-10] versus 7 [IQR, 6-9]). Favorable VO strongly predicted favorable TLC (odds ratio, 4.5 [95% CI, 3.1-6.5]; P<0.001) in an adjusted regression analysis. Favorable VO also predicted good clinical outcome (odds ratio, 10 [95% CI, 6.2-16.0]; P<0.001), while controlling for favorable TLC, age, glucose, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and good vessel reperfusion status.
Conclusions: In this selective retrospective cohort study of acute ischemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion patients undergoing thrombectomy triage, favorable VO profiles correlated with favorable TLC and were associated with good functional outcomes after treatment. Future prospective studies should independently validate our findings.
Keywords: demography; ischemic stroke; perfusion; reperfusion; thrombectomy.