Triazole resistance in A. fumigatus is an increasing worldwide problem that causes major challenges in the management of aspergillosis. New antifungal drugs are needed with novel targets, that are effective in triazole-resistant infection. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated potency of the novel drug olorofim compared to contemporary antifungal agents against 111 clinical A. fumigatus isolates collected from Huashan Hospital, Shanghai, China, using EUCAST methodology, and reviewed the literature on triazole resistant A. fumigatus published between 1966 and 2020 in China. Olorofim was active in vitro against all tested A. fumigatus isolates with MIC90 of 0.031mg/L (range 0.008-0.062 mg/L). For 4 triazole-resistant A. fumigatus (TRAF) isolates, the olorofim MIC ranged between 0.016-0.062mg/L. The reported rates of TRAF in China is 2.5% - 5.56% for clinical isolates, and 0-1.4% for environmental isolates.TR34/L98H/S297T/F495I is the predominant resistance mechanism, followed by TR34/L98H. Non TR-mediated TRAF isolates, mostly harboring a cyp51A single point mutation, showed greater genetic diversity than TR-mediated resistant isolates. Resistance due toTR34/L98H and TR34/L98H/S297T/F495I mutations among TRAF isolates might have evolved from separate local isolates in China. Continuous isolation of TRAF in China underscores the need for systematic resistance surveillance as well as the need for novel drug targets such as olorofim.
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