Background: Choanal atresia is the most common congenital nasal anomaly, with an incidence of 1:5000-1:8000 live births. Atresia can be seen as membraneous, bony or mixed type. When it is bilateral, it is accepted lifethreatening, therefore bilateral atresia necessitates immediate intervention. Diagnosis is confirmed by endoscopic examination and computed tomography. The absolute treatment is surgical, and different approaches have been proposed.
Methods: Herein, we describe our 15-year experience in the treatment of 58 patients of congenital choanal atresia with transnasal endoscopic approach, and we compare the efficacy of placement of an intranasal stent and applying mitomycin while endoscopic microsurgical repair.
Results: The study included 41 female patients (71%) and 17 male patients (29%) with congenital CA. The mean age was 3 years ranging from 10 days to 16 years. The atretic plate was bilateral in 24 patients (41%) and unilateral in 34 (59%). The most common atresia type was the mixed type with 29 patients (50%). A total of 17 patients (29%) required postoperative revision(s). Postoperative revisions were more frequent among patients with bilateral CA (50%), and with mixed CA (31%). Stenting was used additionally by surgical correction for 10 patients. After stenting, fibrosis and restenosis was seen in 7 patients (79%). Mitomycin C was applied peroperatively in 8 patients. Restenosis after mitomycin application was seen in 4 patients (50%).
Conclusions: By our experience, endoscopic microsurgical repair of atresia proved to be an effective and safe procedure, results compared with adjuvant treatment modalities like stent or mitomycin C use, was not better. Restenosis was the major problem seen after surgical correction.
Keywords: choanal atresia; mitomycin C; stent; transnasal endoscopic approach.