Respiratory distress is a commonly encountered problem in newborn infants. Recognizing an infant with respiratory distress is not difficult, but determining the etiology and initiating proper management can be challenging. This review will focus on pulmonary causes of respiratory distress in the late preterm (34-366/7 weeks gestation) through late term (41-416/7 weeks gestation) infant with guidance for diagnosis and proper management of these infants. Many newborns with respiratory distress will require transfer to a higher level of care, but a select group may be safely managed at the delivery hospital.
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