Broad-Spectrum Anti-coronavirus Vaccines and Therapeutics to Combat the Current COVID-19 Pandemic and Future Coronavirus Disease Outbreaks

Stem Cell Reports. 2021 Mar 9;16(3):398-411. doi: 10.1016/j.stemcr.2020.12.010.


While the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 is continuing, it may become worse in the coming winter months with a high potential for the emergence and spread of escape variants of SARS-CoV-2. SARS-related CoVs (SARSr-CoVs) from bats may also cause outbreaks of emerging coronavirus diseases in the future. These predictions call for the development of broad-spectrum anti-coronavirus vaccines and therapeutics to combat the current COVID-19 pandemic and future emerging coronavirus disease epidemics. In this review, we describe advances and challenges in the development of broad-spectrum vaccines and neutralizing antibodies against lineage B betacoronaviruses (β-CoV-Bs), including SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and SARSr-CoVs, as well as peptide-based pan-CoV fusion inhibitors and their potential in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 and other human coronavirus infections.

Keywords: COVID-19; broad-spectrum; coronavirus; spike protein; therapeutic; vaccine.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use*
  • COVID-19 / immunology*
  • COVID-19 / virology
  • COVID-19 Drug Treatment*
  • COVID-19 Vaccines / immunology*
  • Disease Outbreaks
  • Humans
  • Pandemics / prevention & control*
  • SARS-CoV-2 / drug effects
  • SARS-CoV-2 / immunology


  • Antiviral Agents
  • COVID-19 Vaccines