Objectives: To determine the safety and efficacy of flexible ureteroscopy in the treatment of transplant urolithiasis. Materials and Methods: We reviewed a single-center series of 2652 patients who underwent surgical treatment for nephrolithiasis at our institution from 2009 to the present day to identify all patients undergoing ureteroscopy for treatment of transplant lithiasis. Results: We identified 18 patients who underwent ureteroscopy for treatment of urolithiasis within the transplanted kidney or ureter. The majority of the procedures were performed using a retrograde approach with flexible ureteroscopy, with one patient undergoing antegrade ureteroscopy and two patients requiring semirigid ureteroscopy. Holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser lithotripsy was utilized in all but one case, which was performed using basket extraction. There were no intraoperative complications reported. Four patients had small stone fragments on postoperative imaging, three of which were observed. One patient required repeat ureteroscopy for persistent distal ureteral stone. Conclusion: Retrograde ureteroscopy is a feasible, safe, and effective intervention for the treatment of transplant lithiasis. Minimal intraoperative or postoperative complications were reported, and only one patient required additional intervention for residual stone burden.
Keywords: flexible ureteroscopy; renal transplant; transplant lithiasis; ureteroscopy; urolithiasis.