Coronavirus-Specific Antibody Cross Reactivity in Rhesus Macaques Following SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination and Infection

J Virol. 2021 May 10;95(11):e00117-21. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00117-21. Epub 2021 Mar 10.


Vaccines are being rapidly developed with the goal of ending the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. However, the extent to which SARS-CoV-2 vaccination induces serum responses that cross-react with other coronaviruses remains poorly studied. Here we define serum profiles in rhesus macaques after vaccination with DNA or Ad26 based vaccines expressing SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein followed by SARS-CoV-2 challenge, or SARS-CoV-2 infection alone. Analysis of serum responses showed robust reactivity to the SARS-CoV-2 full-length Spike protein and receptor binding domain (RBD), both included in the vaccine. However, serum cross-reactivity to the closely related sarbecovirus SARS-CoV-1 Spike and RBD, was reduced. Reactivity was also measured to the distantly related common cold alpha-coronavirus, 229E and NL63, and beta-coronavirus, OC43 and HKU1, Spike proteins. Using SARS-COV-2 and SARS-CoV-1 lentivirus based pseudoviruses, we show that neutralizing antibody responses were predominantly SARS-CoV-2 specific. These data define patterns of cross-reactive binding and neutralizing serum responses induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination in rhesus macaques. Our observations have important implications for understanding polyclonal responses to SARS-CoV-2 Spike, which will facilitate future CoV vaccine assessment and development.ImportanceThe rapid development and deployment of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines has been unprecedented. In this study, we explore the cross-reactivity of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody responses to other coronaviruses. By analyzing responses from NHPs both before and after immunization with DNA or Ad26 vectored vaccines, we find patterns of cross reactivity that mirror those induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection. These data highlight the similarities between infection and vaccine induced humoral immunity for SARS-CoV-2 and cross-reactivity of these responses to other CoVs.