Objective: Collecting multiple 24-hour recalls (24HR) can be burdensome, necessitating alternative methods to assess dietary intake in the research setting.
Method: This cross-sectional study compared the use of the Diet ID™ online platform with three unannounced 24HR assessed via the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour recall (ASA24) among participants in the Nutritious Eating with Soul (NEW Soul) study. NEW Soul participants (n = 68; 100% African American, 79% female, mean age 50.7 ± 9.6 years) were randomized to follow one of two healthy soul food diets: vegan or omnivorous. For the present study, data from both groups were combined. Energy intake, dietary quality (Healthy Eating Index), and macro-/micronutrient densities per 1000 kcals, as assessed by either the averaged values of the three 24HR or the Diet ID. Descriptive statistics (means, standard deviations, and Spearman rank correlations) summarized each nutrient as measured by the Diet ID and ASA24. Bland-Altman plots were used as the main method to assess agreement between the two measures.
Results: Nutrients from the Diet ID were generally higher than the 24HR except for the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) score (69.6 ± 12.2 ASA24 vs 51.1 ± 34.5 Diet ID). Diet ID reported 950 kcals higher energy intake than ASA24, with the difference being most pronounced at lower ASA24-reported energy intake. There were significant correlations among measures for HEI score, protein, carbohydrates, cholesterol, potassium, copper, thiamin, and vitamins B12 and E. There was higher reporting of nutrients using Diet ID compared to the 24HR. Diet ID is a rapid way to assess dietary intake.
Conclusions: Future studies should consider comparing these two methods with objective assessments of energy and nutrient intake and using multiple instruments to ensure that the strengths of all methods are included.
Keywords: 24-hour dietary recall; Diet assessment; diet; energy intake; food frequency questionnaire.