Chromium pollution and its bioremediation mechanisms in bacteria: A review

J Environ Manage. 2021 Jun 1:287:112279. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112279. Epub 2021 Mar 8.


Environment pollution is at its peak and is creating havoc for living beings. Industrial wastes containing toxic pollutants have contributed to a great extent in this disastrous environment pollution. Chromium (Cr3+/Cr6+) is highly toxic and one of the most common environmental pollutants because of its extensive use in industries especially tanneries. Lack of efficient treatment methods has resulted in extensive chromium pollution. Bioremediation of chromium using bacteria is very thoughtful due to its eco-friendly and cost-effective outcome. Bacteria possess numerous mechanisms such as biosorption, reduction, efflux or bioaccumulation, naturally or acquired to counter the toxicity of chromium. This review focuses on the bacterial responses against chromium toxicity and scope for their application in bioremediation. The differences and similarities between Gram negative and positive bacteria against chromium are also highlighted. Further, the knowledge gap and future prospects are also discussed in order to fill these gaps and overcome the problem associated with real-time applicability of bacterial bioremediation.

Keywords: Bacteria; Bioremediation; Chromium; Efflux; Etc; Mechanisms; Reduction.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bacteria / genetics
  • Biodegradation, Environmental
  • Chromium* / analysis
  • Chromium* / toxicity
  • Environmental Pollutants* / analysis
  • Industrial Waste


  • Environmental Pollutants
  • Industrial Waste
  • Chromium