Tailored hydrogels mimicking the native extracellular environment could help overcome the high variability in outcomes within regenerative endodontics. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the chemokine-binding and antimicrobial polymer, chlorite-oxidized oxyamylose (COAM), on the microstructural properties of fibrin and self-assembling peptide (SAP) hydrogels. A further goal was to assess the influence of the microstructural differences between the hydrogels on the in vitro behavior of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). Structural and mechanical characterization of the hydrogels with and without COAM was performed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to characterize their microstructure (roughness and fiber length, diameter, straightness, and alignment) and by nanoindentation to measure their stiffness (elastic modulus). Then, hDPSCs were encapsulated in hydrogels with and without COAM. Cell viability and circularity were determined using confocal microscopy, and proliferation was determined using DNA quantification. Inclusion of COAM did not alter the microstructure of the fibrin hydrogels at the fiber level while affecting the SAP hydrogel microstructure (homogeneity), leading to fiber aggregation. The stiffness of the SAP hydrogels was sevenfold higher than the fibrin hydrogels. The viability and attachment of hDPSCs were significantly higher in fibrin hydrogels than in SAP hydrogels. The DNA content was significantly affected by the hydrogel type and the presence of COAM. The microstructural stability after COAM inclusion and the favorable hDPSCs' response observed in fibrin hydrogels suggest this system as a promising carrier for COAM and application in endodontic regeneration.