Conventional cardiac surgery in patients with end-stage coronary artery disease: yesterday and today

Cardiovasc Diagn Ther. 2021 Feb;11(1):202-212. doi: 10.21037/cdt-20-284.


Surgical therapy of combined coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure, also referred to as end-stage CAD, has evolved throughout the years and patients are currently being offered traditional coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), with or without surgical ventricle restoration (SVR), interventions for ischemic mitral valve regurgitation, heart transplantation or implantation of mechanical cardiovascular support systems. Among surgical methods, operative myocardial revascularization (with or without ventricle restoration) is still playing an important role, aiming at restoration of proper myocardial perfusion, especially if heart muscle viability is present. Facing the donor shortage, CABG may constitute a valuable alternative to transplantation in selected patients. In individuals considered not suitable for surgical revascularization, implantation of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) not only appears as a salvage procedure, but also allows for reevaluation of future therapy directions. This article aims at providing an overview of evolving and current surgical practices in patients with end-stage CAD.

Keywords: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG); end-stage coronary artery disease (CAD); heart transplantation ischemic cardiomyopathy; myocardial viability; surgical ventricle restoration (SVR).

Publication types

  • Review