Background and objective: Emicizumab is a monoclonal antibody that bridges activated coagulation factor IX and factor X to restore effective hemostasis in persons with hemophilia A. It is indicated for routine prophylaxis of bleeding episodes in persons with hemophilia A. The aim of the present study is to describe the exposure-response relationship between emicizumab concentrations and bleeding frequency, and to confirm adequate bleeding control of the investigated dosing regimens 1.5 mg/kg once weekly, 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks, and 6 mg/kg every 4 weeks.
Methods: Treated bleeding events were pooled from 445 persons with hemophilia A with and without inhibitors against factor VIII, participating in six clinical studies. Emicizumab concentrations were predicted using a previously developed population pharmacokinetic model. A count model was used to quantify the exposure-response relationship. These models were used to illustrate the relationship between emicizumab concentrations and cumulative count of bleeding over 1 year (annualized bleeding rate).
Results: The final exposure-response model, based on a generalized Poisson distribution and an inhibitory Emax relationship, adequately describes the relationship between daily emicizumab concentrations and daily bleed frequency. A significant effect of factor VIII prophylaxis among persons with hemophilia A without inhibitors was found. Annualized bleeding rate simulations show that the three emicizumab dosing regimens maintain the concentrations close to the plateau of the effect. At the average steady-state concentration across all regimens (53.5 µg/mL), the predicted mean annualized bleeding rate is 1.28, corresponding to a 94.0% reduction from baseline.
Conclusions: These results confirm that average emicizumab concentrations achieved with all three emicizumab dosing regimens provide adequate bleeding control.