Menstrual cycle resumption and female fertility after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for multiple sclerosis

Mult Scler. 2021 Nov;27(13):2103-2107. doi: 10.1177/13524585211000616. Epub 2021 Mar 12.


Data on fertility after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT) in women with multiple sclerosis (MS) are inconclusive. This study aims to report on post-aHSCT menstrual resumption in a multi-center MS-women cohort. Out of 43 women, 30 (70%) recovered menses after a mean time of 6.8 months. Older age (odds ratio (OR) = 0.5, p < 0.0001) and previous pulsed cyclophosphamide (OR = 0.44, p = 0.005) were independently associated with a reduced menstrual recovery probability. Conditioning regimens' intensity resulted not associated with post-procedure amenorrhea. Our results highlight younger age as significantly associated with menses recovery; proper fertility counseling for MS women candidated to aHSCT both prior- and post-transplantation is therefore warranted.

Keywords: Aggressive multiple sclerosis; amenorrhea; autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; fertility; menstrual cycle.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Female
  • Fertility
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation* / adverse effects
  • Humans
  • Menstrual Cycle
  • Multiple Sclerosis* / therapy
  • Transplantation Conditioning
  • Transplantation, Autologous