Per-oral Endoscopic Myotomy and Other Applications of Third Space Endoscopy: Current Status and Future Perspectives

Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 2021 Mar 12. doi: 10.1097/SLE.0000000000000920. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Introduction: The modification of NOTES (natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery) by mucosal safety flap has introduced us to the world of third space endoscopy (TSE). POEM (per-oral endoscopic myotomy) for achalasia cardia being its first vista, the realm expanded so that we can now remove en bloc a subepithelial/intramural tumor by POET (per-oral endoscopic tumor resection), perform G-POEM (gastric per-oral endoscopic myotomy) for refractory gastroparesis, restore esophageal continuity in complete obstruction by performing POETRE (per-oral endoscopic tunneling for the restoration of the esophagus), divide the septum in Zenker diverticulum completely with negligible risk of perforation by Z-POEM (Zenker per-oral endoscopic myotomy) and relieve constipation in Hirschsprung disease by PREM (per-rectal endoscopic myotomy). However, the real potential of TSE became evident with the introduction of POEM with fundoplication. TSE has opened the gates of the peritoneal cavity. Improved expertise and equipment will make the role of endoscopist complimentary to the surgeon with the dawn of a new field in therapeutic endoscopy.

Areas covered: This review intends to comprehensively discuss the various aspects of POEM for achalasia studied so far followed by a brief discussion about other applications of TSE and the future perspectives in this exciting field.