Antibiotic administration for negative midstream urine culture patients before percutaneous nephrolithotomy

Urolithiasis. 2021 Dec;49(6):505-512. doi: 10.1007/s00240-021-01260-8. Epub 2021 Mar 12.


To investigate how to administrate antibiotics for negative midstream urine culture (UC-) patients prior to percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), we retrospectively analyzed UC-patients receiving 0 or 3 days of cefuroxime prior to PCNL between July 2017 and May 2020. Patients were further divided into four groups (Group1A = urine with positive both nitrite and white blood cell (N + WBC +) and 0-day pre-operative cefuroxime; Group1B = N + WBC + and 3-day cefuroxime; Group2A = N - WBC + and 0-day cefuroxime; Group2B = N - WBC + and 3-day cefuroxime). All patients routinely received a dose of cefuroxime 30 min prior to the surgery. In addition, Group1B were matched to the Group1A; Group2B were matched to the Group2A at a 1:1 ratio regarding stone burden, the degree of hydronephrosis, stone hardness, age and sex in a sequential order. A total of 560 patients were included (Group1A = 72; Group1B = 72; Group2A = 208; Group2B = 208). The baseline characteristics were equally distributed between the matched-pair groups. Compared to Group1B, Group1A had a significantly higher incidence of SIRS, fever, urosepsis requiring only additional antibiotics, and an increased postoperative hospitalization stay. Compared to Group2B, Group2A had similar rate of infectious complications. In addition, Group1B was associated with a significantly lower rate of positive pelvic urine culture (PUC +) than that of Group1A; whereas, there was similar rate of PUC + between Group2A and Group2B. UC-patients with N + WBC + should be treated with extended period of antibiotic administration, and a single dose of prophylactic antibiotic was sufficient for UC-patients with N - WBC + prior to PCNL. Despite UC, it is suggested to stratify pre-operative antibiotics tailored to individual patients to optimize its application.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Negative urine culture; Percutaneous nephrolithotomy; Renal stone.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Kidney Calculi* / drug therapy
  • Kidney Calculi* / surgery
  • Nephrolithotomy, Percutaneous* / adverse effects
  • Nephrostomy, Percutaneous* / adverse effects
  • Postoperative Complications
  • Retrospective Studies


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents