Genome-wide association studies of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) nominate 3073 genetic variants at 91 risk loci. To systematically screen these variants for allelic transcriptional enhancer activity, we construct a massively parallel reporter assay (MPRA) library comprising 12,396 DNA oligonucleotides containing the genomic context around every allele of each SLE variant. Transfection into the Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cell line GM12878 reveals 482 variants with enhancer activity, with 51 variants showing genotype-dependent (allelic) enhancer activity at 27 risk loci. Comparison of MPRA results in GM12878 and Jurkat T cell lines highlights shared and unique allelic transcriptional regulatory mechanisms at SLE risk loci. In-depth analysis of allelic transcription factor (TF) binding at and around allelic variants identifies one class of TFs whose DNA-binding motif tends to be directly altered by the risk variant and a second class of TFs that bind allelically without direct alteration of their motif by the variant. Collectively, our approach provides a blueprint for the discovery of allelic gene regulation at risk loci for any disease and offers insight into the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms underlying SLE.