Cardiomyocytes undergo significant structural and functional changes after birth, and these fundamental processes are essential for the heart to pump blood to the growing body. However, due to the challenges of isolating single postnatal/adult myocytes, how individual newborn cardiomyocytes acquire multiple aspects of the mature phenotype remains poorly understood. Here we implement large-particle sorting and analyze single myocytes from neonatal to adult hearts. Early myocytes exhibit wide-ranging transcriptomic and size heterogeneity that is maintained until adulthood with a continuous transcriptomic shift. Gene regulatory network analysis followed by mosaic gene deletion reveals that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1 signaling, which is active in vivo but inactive in pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes, mediates the shift. This signaling simultaneously regulates key aspects of cardiomyocyte maturation through previously unrecognized proteins, including YAP1 and SF3B2. Our study provides a single-cell roadmap of heterogeneous transitions coupled to cellular features and identifies a multifaceted regulator controlling cardiomyocyte maturation.