In vitro immunoregulatory activity and anti-inflammatory effect of Echinococcus granulosus laminated layer

Acta Trop. 2021 Jun:218:105886. doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2021.105886. Epub 2021 Mar 10.


The Laminated layer of Echinococcus granulosus (LL) is the outer layer of the hydatic cyst. It plays a pivotal role in protecting the metacestode from host immunity. In our current study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effect of the LL on mouse spleen cells in presence of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mouse spleen cells were cultured with or without LL in presence of LPS. After 24 h, the nitrites level representative of Nitric oxide (NO) production was measured in the culture supernatant by Griess-modified method. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-1β, TGF-β, IL-10), Foxp3, and CTLA-4 were measured by quantitative Real-Time Polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Interestingly, our results showed a significant decrease (p< 0.01) in NO production and IFN-γ mRNA level (p< 0.001) from LPS- induced spleen cells in response to LL after 24h of culture. Moreover, LPS induced high level of IL-1β that was significantly (p<0.05) down regulated by LL. Importantly, mRNA levels of TGF-β (p< 0.01), Foxp3 and IL-10 (p< 0.05) were significantly upregulated by LL. In conclusion, our data indicated the in vitro immuno-regulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of the hydatic Laminated Layer on mouse spleen cells. These effects are related to an innate response implicating up-regulation of Foxp3, IL-10 and TGF-β expression and down-regulation of IFN-γ and IL-1β expression. LL could constitute a potential candidate for controlling inflammation during inflammatory disease.

Keywords: Echinococcus granulosus; Immune regulation; Inflammation; LPS; Laminated layer; Spleen cells.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cytokines / genetics
  • Echinococcus granulosus / physiology*
  • Immunomodulation*
  • Inflammation / parasitology
  • Mice
  • Nitric Oxide / metabolism
  • Up-Regulation / immunology


  • Cytokines
  • Nitric Oxide