Monocyte Subset Recruitment Marker Profile Is Inversely Associated With Blood ApoA1 Levels

Front Immunol. 2021 Feb 26;12:616305. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.616305. eCollection 2021.


Dyslipidemia promotes development of the atherosclerotic plaques that characterise cardiovascular disease. Plaque progression requires the influx of monocytes into the vessel wall, but whether dyslipidemia is associated with an increased potential of monocytes to extravasate is largely unknown. Here (using flow cytometry) we examined recruitment marker expression on monocytes from generally healthy individuals who differed in lipid profile. Comparisons were made between monocyte subsets, participants and relative to participants' lipid levels. Monocyte subsets differed significantly in their expression of recruitment markers, with highest expression being on either the classical or non-classical subsets. However, these inter-subset differences were largely overshadowed by considerable inter-participant differences with some participants having higher levels of recruitment markers on all three monocyte subsets. Furthermore, when the expression of one recruitment marker was high, so too was that of most of the other markers, with substantial correlations evident between the markers. The inter-participant differences were explained by lipid levels. Most notably, there was a significant inverse correlation for most markers with ApoA1 levels. Our results indicate that dyslipidemia, in particular low levels of ApoA1, is associated with an increased potential of all monocyte subsets to extravasate, and to do so using a wider repertoire of recruitment markers than currently appreciated.

Keywords: adhesion; atherosclerosis; cardiovascular disease; dyslipidemia; migration; monocytes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Apolipoprotein A-I / blood*
  • Biomarkers*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / metabolism
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules / blood
  • Chemokines / blood
  • Chemotaxis, Leukocyte / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Immunophenotyping
  • Middle Aged
  • Monocytes / immunology*
  • Monocytes / metabolism*


  • APOA1 protein, human
  • Apolipoprotein A-I
  • Biomarkers
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules
  • Chemokines