Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies have demonstrated high response rates in patients with relapsed/refractory large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL); however, these therapies are associated with 2 CAR T cell-specific potentially severe adverse events (AEs): cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and neurological events (NEs). This study estimated the management costs associated with CRS/NEs among patients with relapsed/refractory LBCL using data from the pivotal TRANSCEND NHL 001 trial of lisocabtagene maraleucel, an investigational CD19-directed defined composition CAR T-cell product with a 4-1BB costimulation domain administered at equal target doses of CD8+ and CD4+ CAR+ T cells. This retrospective analysis of patients from TRANSCEND with prospectively identified CRS and/or NE episodes examined relevant trial-observed health care resource utilization (HCRU) associated with toxicity management based on the severity of the event from the health care system perspective. Cost estimates for this analysis were taken from publicly available databases and published literature. Of 268 treated patients as of April 2019, 127 (47.4%) experienced all-grade CRS and/or NEs, which were predominantly grade ≤2 (77.2%). Median total AE management costs ranged from $1930 (grade 1 NE) to $177 343 (concurrent grade ≥3 CRS and NE). Key drivers of cost were facility expenses, including intensive care unit and other inpatient hospitalization lengths of stay. HCRU and costs were significantly greater among patients with grade ≥3 AEs (22.8%). Therefore, CAR T-cell therapies with a low incidence of severe CRS/NEs will likely reduce HCRU and costs associated with managing patients receiving CAR T-cell therapy. This clinical trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02631044.
© 2021 by The American Society of Hematology.