Long-term outcomes of truncus arteriosus repair: A modulated renewal competing risks analysis

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2021 Feb 12;S0022-5223(21)00252-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2021.01.136. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Objective: In this study, we sought to identify independent risk factors for mortality and reintervention after early surgical correction of truncus arteriosus using a novel statistical method.

Methods: Patients undergoing neonatal/infant truncus arteriosus repair between January 1984 and December 2018 were reviewed retrospectively. An innovative statistical strategy was applied integrating competing risks analysis with modulated renewal for time-to-event modeling.

Results: A total of 204 patients were included in the study. Mortality occurred in 32 patients (15%). Smaller right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit size and truncal valve insufficiency at birth were significantly associated with overall mortality (right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit size: hazard ratio, 1.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.66, P = .008; truncal valve insufficiency: hazard ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-5.53, P = .024). truncal valve insufficiency at birth, truncal valve intervention at index repair, and number of cusps (4 vs 3) were associated with truncal valve reoperations (truncal valve insufficiency: hazard ratio, 2.38; 95%, confidence interval, 1.13-5.01, P = .02; cusp number: hazard ratio, 6.62; 95% confidence interval, 2.54-17.3, P < .001). Right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit size 11 mm or less was associated with a higher risk of early catheter-based reintervention (hazard ratio, 1.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.28, P = .03) and reoperation (hazard ratio, 1.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.33-2.89, P = .001) on the right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit.

Conclusions: Smaller right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit size and truncal valve insufficiency at birth were associated with overall mortality after truncus arteriosus repair. Quadricuspid truncal valve, the presence of truncal valve insufficiency at the time of diagnosis, and truncal valve intervention at index repair were associated with an increased risk of reoperation. The size of the right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit at index surgery is the single most important factor for early reoperation and catheter-based reintervention on the conduit.

Keywords: competing risks; long-term outcomes; modulated renewal; risk factors; statistical analysis; truncus arteriosus.