As demonstrated with immunocytochemistry, specific cells and axons in the nervous system of female Aedes aegypti contain antigens immunologically related to FMRFamide (phenylalanine-methionine-arginine-phenylalanine-amide) and locust adipokinetic hormone I (AKH). In the supra-esophageal ganglion, including some medial neurosecretory cells, and in all ganglia of the ventral nerve cord, there are 100-120 cells immunoreactive to a FMRFamide antiserum. The same cells cross-react with a bovine pancreatic polypeptide antiserum, but when the latter antiserum is preabsorbed with FMRFamide, immunoreactivity is lost. However, immunoreactivity is maintained when FMRFamide antiserum is preabsorbed with pancreatic polypeptide, suggesting that the immunoreactive peptide is more closely related to FMRFamide. There are 6-12 cells in the supra- and subesophageal ganglia immunoreactive to an AKH antiserum, and some of the same cells are reactive to the FMRFamide antiserum. As well, unpaired cells in each of the abdominal ganglia are positive for both AKH and FMRFamide. Although the function of the FMRFamide- and AKH-like peptides in mosquitoes is unknown, this study, combined with previous reports on the localization of FMRFamide-like peptides in midgut endocrine cells, supports the concept of a brain-midgut neuroendocrine axis in this insect.