Objectives: Early seizures are a common complication of intracerebral hemorrhage, occurring in ~10% of patients. However, the independent effect of early seizures on patient outcomes, particularly health-related quality of life, is unclear. Without a potential benefit to patient outcomes, the widespread use (~40%) of prophylactic seizure medications has no reasonable chance of improving patient outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that health-related quality of life at follow-up is different between patients with and without early seizures (and secondarily, with nonconvulsive status epilepticus) after intracerebral hemorrhage.
Design: Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage were enrolled in an observational cohort study that prospectively collected clinical data and health-related quality of life at follow-up.
Setting: Academic medical center.
Patients: One-hundred thirty-three patients whose health-related quality of life was assessed 3 months after intracerebral hemorrhage onset.
Measurements and main results: Health-related quality of life was obtained at 3 months after intracerebral hemorrhage onset. T Scores of health-related quality of life were modeled with multivariable linear models accounting for severity with the intracerebral hemorrhage Score and hematoma location. Health-related quality of life was measured with National Institutes of Health Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System/Neuroquality of life, expressed in T Scores (U.S. normal 50 ± 10). The modified Rankin Scale (a global measure) was a secondary outcome. There were 12 patients (9%) with early seizures. T Scores of health-related quality of life at follow-up were lower (worse) in patients with early seizure compared with patients without an early seizure (44 [32.75-51.85] vs 30.25 [18.9-39.15]; p = 0.04); results for other domains of health-related quality of life were similar. The association persisted in multivariable models. There was no association between early seizures and prophylactic seizure medications (p = 0.4). Results for patients with nonconvulsive status epilepticus were similar. There was no association between early seizures and the modified Rankin Scale at 3 months.
Conclusions: Early seizures and nonconvulsive status epilepticus were associated with lower health-related quality of life at follow-up in survivors of intracerebral hemorrhage.
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