Background: Carbon dioxide angiography with addition of optical coherence tomography imaging may improve procedural success and clinical outcomes in patients with peripheral artery disease and chronic kidney disease.
Methods: Single-center, retrospective analysis of patients with chronic kidney disease who underwent carbon dioxide angiography and optical coherence tomography-guided chronic total occlusion crossing and/or optical coherence tomography-guided directional atherectomy was performed. Patient and procedure-related characteristics, along with peri- and one-year post-procedural major adverse events, were analyzed.
Results: A total of 18 vessels in 11 patients, with mean age 70 years were treated. All had co-morbidities such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, had history or were current smokers with baseline peripheral artery disease. Majority were diabetic with coronary disease (82%); 55% baseline chronic kidney disease IV, 55% Rutherford class III and 45% class IV. Contrast was used in only two patients. Mean total fluoroscopy time and radiation dose was 24.1 min and 249.2 mGY, respectively. Half of the lesions were femoro-popliteal chronic total occlusions, and Ocelot catheter was used to cross seven of nine chronic total occlusions and was successful in six. Adjunctive optical coherence tomography-guided directional atherectomy was performed in 8 of 11 patients. Only two adverse events occurred: one clinically significant event of slow-flow intra-procedurally and one target limb revascularization within one year of index procedure in a vessel different than prior treated. Optical coherence tomography imaging in both chronic total occlusion-crossing and atherectomy resulted in 10-min mean fluoroscopy reduction time and 32 mGY reduction in radiation dose.
Conclusion: Carbon dioxide angiography with the addition of optical coherence tomography imaging for chronic total occlusion crossing and/or optical coherence tomography-guided directional atherectomy reduced the need for contrast agents, total fluoroscopy time, and radiation exposure in patients with peripheral artery disease and baseline chronic kidney disease.
Keywords: CO2 angiography; Peripheral intervention; chronic kidney disease; directional atherectomy; optical coherence tomography.