Stage 4S Neuroblastoma: Molecular, Histologic, and Immunohistochemical Characteristics and Presence of 2 Distinct Patterns of MYCN Protein Overexpression-A Report From the Children's Oncology Group

Am J Surg Pathol. 2021 Aug 1;45(8):1075-1081. doi: 10.1097/PAS.0000000000001647.

Abstract

Stage 4S neuroblastoma (4SNB) is associated with spontaneous tumor regression and an excellent prognosis. However, a small group of the patients have a poor prognosis. One hundred eighty-five stage 4SNB cases filed at the Children's Oncology Group Neuroblastoma Pathology Reference Laboratory were studied. MYCN oncogene status [non-amplified (NA) vs. Amplified (A)] determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization, MYC-family (MYCN/MYC) protein expression [no-overexpression(-)/(+/-) vs. overexpression(+)] by immunohistochemistry and histopathology by International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification [Favorable Histology (FH) vs. Unfavorable Histology (UH)] with particular attention to nucleolar hypertrophy [NH(-) vs. (+)] were assessed with patient survival. One hundred forty-seven (79.5%) tumors were MYCN-NA, FH, MYC-family protein(-)/(+/-), and NH(-) with a good prognosis [88.5±3.1% 3-y event-free survival (EFS); 94.1±2.3% 3-y overall survival (OS)]. Among MYCN-NA tumors, 11 demonstrated MYCN protein(+) with a moderate and uniform (M/U) staining pattern: they were FH(10/11), NH(-), 1 showed MYC protein(+) simultaneously, and all patients are alive. Also found were 5 MYC protein(+) and MYCN(-)/(+/-) tumors; they were FH without NH (4/5), and all patients are alive. Among MYCN-A tumors, 18 had MYCN protein(+) with a strong and heterogeneous (S/H) staining pattern, 9 had UH (44.4±23.4% EFS/OS) and 9 had FH (68.6±19.2% EFS/OS), and 15 showed NH(+). Two tumors had MYCN protein(-)/(+/-) despite MYCN-A; both were FH and NH(-), and 1 patient died. S/H staining pattern of MYCN protein overexpression by immunohistochemistry was associated with MYCN amplification, NH(+) and a poor prognosis. In contrast, the M/U staining pattern was associated with MYCN nonamplification and NH(-), and had no adverse prognostic effects for the stage 4SNB patients.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics
  • Female
  • Gene Amplification
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • N-Myc Proto-Oncogene Protein / genetics*
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Neuroblastoma / genetics*
  • Neuroblastoma / pathology*
  • Prognosis

Substances

  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • MYCN protein, human
  • N-Myc Proto-Oncogene Protein