A Manual for the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended Interview

J Neurotrauma. 2021 Sep 1;38(17):2435-2446. doi: 10.1089/neu.2020.7527. Epub 2021 Apr 6.


The Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE) has become one of the most widely used outcome instruments to assess global disability and recovery after traumatic brain injury. Achieving consistency in the application of the assessment remains a challenge, particularly in multi-center studies involving many assessors. We present a manual for the GOSE interview that is designed to support both single- and multi-center studies and promote inter-rater agreement. Many patients fall clearly into a particular category; however, patients may have outcomes that are on the borderline between adjacent categories, and cases can present other challenges for assessment. The Manual includes the general principles of assessment, advice on administering each section of the GOSE interview, and guidance on "borderline" and "difficult" cases. Finally, we discuss the properties of the GOSE, including strengths and limitations, and outline recommendations for assessor training, accreditation, and monitoring.

Keywords: GOSE; Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended; clinical outcome assessment; traumatic brain injury.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Brain Injuries, Traumatic / complications*
  • Brain Injuries, Traumatic / physiopathology*
  • Brain Injuries, Traumatic / psychology
  • Disability Evaluation
  • Glasgow Outcome Scale*
  • Humans
  • Interviews as Topic
  • Manuals as Topic
  • Outcome Assessment, Health Care
  • Recovery of Function
  • Surveys and Questionnaires