Minimally invasive closure of transthoracic ventricular septal defect: postoperative complications and risk factors

J Cardiothorac Surg. 2021 Mar 19;16(1):30. doi: 10.1186/s13019-021-01415-z.


Objectives: To summarize and analyze the clinical characteristics of postoperative complications after minimally invasive closure of transthoracic ventricular septal defect, and to explore the risk factors for its occurrence.

Methods: Retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 209 patients underwent transthoracic ventricular septal defect closure performed in the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from January 2018 to January 2020, obtained relevant clinical data from the electronic medical record system and summarized their postoperative complications. And used univariate logistics regression and multivariate logistics regression to analyze the risk factors of its occurrence.

Results: The postoperative hospital stay of 27 patients was longer than 9 days. Residual shunt occurred in 33 patients recently after operation. One patient underwent surgical treatment again because of mechanical hemolysis after the operation. Two patients were re-operated 1 month and 10 months after surgery because of persistent moderate to severe aortic regurgitation. After surgery, 3 patients underwent pericardiocentesis due to a large amount of pericardial effusion, and 2 patients developed a new atrioventricular block after the operation. No other serious adverse events occurred. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the size of VSD defect (OR: 1.494, 95% Cl: 1.108-2.013, P value: 0.008) was related to long postoperative hospitalization. The residual shunt is related to the size of the occluder (OR: 1.452, 95%Cl: 1.164-1.810, P value: 0.001). In the univariate logistics regression analysis, no risk factors related to serious adverse events were found.

Conclusions: The minimally invasive closure of transthoracic ventricular septal defect is very effective, with no mortality and low incidence of serious adverse events after surgery. The size of the defect is related to the long postoperative hospitalization, and the size of the occluder is related to the residual shunt in the early postoperative period. No risk factors related to the occurrence of serious adverse events after the operation were found.

Keywords: Cardiac intervention; Congenital heart diseases; Risk factors; Surgery; Ventricular septal defect.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures / methods*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular / diagnosis
  • Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Length of Stay
  • Male
  • Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods*
  • Postoperative Complications*
  • Postoperative Period
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome