Patient-Derived Xenografts from Solid Tumors (PDX) for Models of Metastasis

Methods Mol Biol. 2021:2294:43-58. doi: 10.1007/978-1-0716-1350-4_4.


In cancer research, availability of clinically relevant tumor models is still essential for drug testing, proof of concept studies, and also molecular analyses. To achieve this, models are of advantage, which more closely reflect heterogeneity of tumors. In this regard, patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models more closely recapitulate the native tumor biology, tissue composition, and molecular characteristics. Since metastasis is still the major challenge of tumor therapy, models are pivotal, which resemble this particular property. In this context, PDX model-derived metastasis is of particular interest for testing antimetastatic therapies for their efficacy to better target this systemic disease. This protocol describes the establishment of PDX models from tumor specimen and their applicability for PDX-derived metastasis at metastatic sites such as liver and lung, which are also clinically relevant for the systemic spread of cancer. Analysis of metastasis and methods for quantification of metastatic spread are provided.

Keywords: Breast cancer; Colorectal cancer; Lung cancer; Metastasis; Patient-derived xenograft (PDX); Solid cancer.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Precision Medicine / methods*
  • Primary Cell Culture / methods
  • Tissue Preservation / methods
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured
  • Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays / methods*