Background: Few studies have demonstrated associations between maternal dietary inflammatory index (DII) during pregnancy and offspring asthma and/or wheeze.
Objective: The study aimed to assess associations between maternal DII during pregnancy and 1) offspring cord sera pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α) and chemokines (IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) at birth and 2) offspring asthma and/or wheeze at age 4 years.
Design: The Healthy Start study is a prospective prebirth longitudinal study that recruited pregnant women in Denver, Colorado and tracked their offspring.
Participants and setting: This study used data from 1228 mother-child dyads enrolled in the Healthy Start study. Pregnant women were recruited in Denver, Colorado, between 2009 and 2014, and offspring tracked until age 4 years.
Main outcome measures: Cord sera cytokines and chemokines were analyzed with multiplex panel immunoassays. Offspring diagnosis of asthma and/or wheeze by age 4 years was extracted from electronic medical records.
Statistical analyses performed: Unadjusted and adjusted linear and logistic regression models were used to assess associations. Covariates included factors such as nulliparity, race/ethnicity, gestational smoking, and maternal history of asthma.
Results: Unadjusted analysis showed that increasing maternal DII scores were associated with increased odds of child asthma and/or wheeze by 4 years (odds ratio = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.07-1.27), but the association was attenuated and no longer statistically significant in the adjusted model (odds ratio = 1.15; 95% CI: 0.99-1.33). There were no significant associations between DII scores and cord sera cytokine or chemokine levels.
Conclusions: The study showed that the inflammatory profile of the maternal diet was not associated with cytokines and chemokine levels at birth. The results suggested that a more inflammatory maternal diet was associated with increased odds of offspring asthma and/or wheeze by age 4 years, which could be considered of clinical relevance but the finding was not statistically significant at the .05 level.
Keywords: Asthma; Cytokines; Dietary inflammatory index.
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