Disturbed sleep quality and architecture in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus: Relation to glycemic control, vascular complications and insulin sensitivity

Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2021 Apr:174:108774. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2021.108774. Epub 2021 Mar 19.


Background: Insufficient sleep duration and poor sleep quality have been linked to insulin resistance and impaired glucose metabolism. However, the relation between sleep disruption and type1 diabetes (T1D) hasn't been thoroughly explored.

Aim: To study the association between sleep parameters and glycemic control, insulin resistance and micro-vascular complications among adolescent with T1D.

Methodology: Sixty adolescents with T1D were compared to 60 matched controls. Diabetes-duration, insulin-therapy, fundus, Epworth Sleepiness Scale-Child Adolescent and the neuropathy disability score were assessed. Fasting lipids, fraction-C of glycosylated hemoglobin(HbA1c) and urinary albumin-excretion were measured with calculation of the insulin sensitivity score(ISS). Overnight polysomnography(PSG) was done.

Results: Adolescents with T1D had significantly lower sleep efficiency and rapid eye movement(REM) sleep than controls with significantly higher sleep onset latency, non-REM sleep and arousal index(P < 0.001). Although ISS was negatively correlated to total sleep time(P = 0.002); it was positively correlated to sleep efficiency(P < 0.001). HbA1C was negatively correlated to sleep efficiency(<0.001) and REM sleep(P = 0.003) and positively correlated to sleep onset latency(P = 0.005). T1D adolescents with micro-vascular complications had significantly lower sleep efficiency and REM sleep than those without micro-vascular complications.

Conclusion: Poor sleep quality and architecture among adolescents with T1D are associated with impaired glycemic control, insulin resistance and micro-vascular complications.

Keywords: Adolescents; Insulin sensitivity; Sleep architecture; Type 1 diabetes; Vascular complications.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Child
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / complications*
  • Diabetic Angiopathies / etiology
  • Diabetic Angiopathies / physiopathology*
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin / analysis
  • Glycemic Control / methods*
  • Humans
  • Insulin Resistance*
  • Male
  • Polysomnography / methods
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / etiology
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / physiopathology*


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A