Current trends in non-dairy based synbiotics

Crit Rev Biotechnol. 2021 Sep;41(6):935-952. doi: 10.1080/07388551.2021.1898329. Epub 2021 Mar 21.


Probiotics provide many beneficial effects to the human body. Traditionally, food products used to deliver bacterial cells are fermented dairy products, among which yogurt is the most common. However, many people suffer from lactose intolerance and indigestion, who need nutrients from non-dairy products without using animal proteins. Thus, there is a need to develop synbiotics based on non-dairy food matrices. This paper reviews the potential and emerging candidates of pre and probiotic groups. The criteria for qualifying bacteria as probiotics and nutrients as prebiotics are discussed. One of the promising prebiotics explored in the recent past is the dietary fibers in the peels of potato, apples, and other fruits. This paper summarizes methods for the preparation of dietary fiber-based non-dairy synbiotics such as microencapsulation, freeze-drying, and spray drying. The standard testing protocols of synbiotics including the in vitro trials are presented. Synbiotics not only favor the survival of probiotics in the gastric conditions of the human gut but also exhibit antimicrobial activity, which confirms their ability to protect the human body from infection. Many fiber-based non-dairy synbiotic products are available in the market and these are also highlighted. The challenges faced by non-dairy-based synbiotics which open up new research opportunities and market demand are also identified.

Keywords: Non-dairy based synbiotics; dietary fibers; fiber-based synbiotics; food processing waste; freeze-drying; microencapsulation; prebiotics; probiotics; spray drying.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Dietary Fiber
  • Fruit
  • Humans
  • Prebiotics
  • Probiotics*
  • Synbiotics*


  • Dietary Fiber
  • Prebiotics