Cardiorenal Syndrome

Crit Care Clin. 2021 Apr;37(2):335-347. doi: 10.1016/j.ccc.2020.11.003. Epub 2021 Feb 13.


Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) describes a specific acute and chronic clinical picture in which the heart or the kidney are primarily dysfunctioning and secondarily affect each other. CRS is divided into five classes: acute and chronic CRS, acute and chronic renocardiac syndromes, and secondary dysfunction of heart and kidneys. This article specifically details the classification and the epidemiology, some risk factors, and the pathophysiology of CRS. Some emerging aspects of CRS are also discussed, such as CRS in patients with end-stage heart failure, with mechanical ventricular assistance, and after heart transplantation. Finally, some aspects of pediatric CRS are detailed.

Keywords: Acute kidney injury; Cardiorenal syndrome; Heart failure; Heart transplantation; Pediatric cardiorenal syndrome; Renocardiac syndrome; Ventricular-assist device.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cardio-Renal Syndrome* / epidemiology
  • Cardio-Renal Syndrome* / therapy
  • Child
  • Heart
  • Heart Failure* / complications
  • Heart Failure* / epidemiology
  • Heart Failure* / therapy
  • Humans