Vigil® is a personalized vaccine that enhances tumor neoantigen expression. We investigated for the first time safety and efficacy of Vigil in combination with atezolizumab in relapsed ovarian cancer (OC) patients. This is a randomized, Phase 1 study of Vigil, an autologous tumor tissue transfected vaccine encoding for GMCSF and bi-shRNA-furin thereby creating enhanced immune activation and TGFβ expression control. Part 1 is a safety assessment of Vigil (1 × 10e7 cells/mL/21 days) plus atezolizumab (1200 mg/21 days). Part 2 is a randomized study of Vigil first (Vigil-1st) or atezolizumab first (Atezo-1st) for two cycles followed by the combination of both agents. The primary endpoint of the study was the determination of safety. Twenty-four patients were enrolled in the study; three patients to Part 1 and 21 to Part 2. Patients in Part 1 completed combination therapy without dose-limiting toxicity justifying expansion to Part 2. Twenty-one patients were randomized (1:1) to Part 2 to Vigil-1st (n = 11) or Atezo-1st (n = 10). Grade 3/4 treatment-related adverse events of Atezo-1st vs. Vigil-1st were 17.2% vs. 5.1%. Median overall survival (OS) was not reached (NR) (Vigil-1st) vs. 10.8 months (Atezo-1st) (hazard ratio [HR] 0.33). The exploratory subset analysis of BRCAwt suggested improved OS benefit [NR in Vigil-1st vs. 5.2 months in Atezo-1st, HR 0.16, p 0.027]. The Vigil-1st combination therapy with atezolizumab was safe and results in support continued investigation in BRCAwt patients.