This is an exciting phase of vitiligo research with the current understanding of vitiligo pathogenesis and its translation to successful treatment. The pathogenetic origin of vitiligo revolves around autoimmunity with supporting role from many other factors like oxidative stress, inherent melanocyte defects, or defective keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Vitiligo can be classified into segmental or non-segmental depending upon the clinical presentation, or it can be classified as progressing or stable based on the activity of the disease. Vitiligo treatments need to be stratified depending upon which type of vitiligo we are treating and at which phase the vitiligo patient presents to us. There are two different aims of treatment of vitiligo. The first involves rescuing the melanocytes from the damage to arrest the depigmentation. The second strategy focuses on replenishing the melanocytes so that successful repigmentation is achieved. It is also important to maintain the disease in a stable phase or prevent relapse. As stability in non-segmental vitiligo is a dynamic process, maintenance of the stability of repigmentation is also an important consideration in the management of vitiligo. In this review, we shall briefly discuss the current options and future insight into the management of vitiligo.
Keywords: autoimmunity; dermoscopy; pathogenesis; surgical methods; vitiligo.
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