Variances and covariances of squared linkage disequilibria in finite populations

Theor Popul Biol. 1988 Feb;33(1):54-78. doi: 10.1016/0040-5809(88)90004-4.


Analysis of linkage disequilibrium D among restriction sites or bases in DNA sequences, arising from mutations in finite populations, depends on a knowledge of the variance-covariance structure of measures such as D2 between different pairs of sites. This requires evaluation of the eighth moments of gene frequencies among two, three, and four loci, and the necessary methodology is derived here and results are computed. While primary emphasis is placed on disequilibrium arising from mutation or gene conversion, the methodology also allows for the joint effects of only drift and recombination. Numerical results confirm that squared linkage disequilibria can have high variances and covariances.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Base Sequence
  • Gene Frequency
  • Genetic Linkage*
  • Genetics, Population*
  • Models, Genetic*
  • Mutation
  • Recombination, Genetic*