Long-term ovarian hormone deprivation alters functional connectivity, brain neurochemical profile and white matter integrity in the Tg2576 amyloid mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

Neurobiol Aging. 2021 Jun;102:139-150. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2021.02.011. Epub 2021 Feb 22.


Premenopausal bilateral ovariectomy is considered to be one of the risk factors of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we aimed to investigate long-term neurological consequences of ovariectomy in a rodent AD model, TG2576 (TG), and wild-type mice (WT) that underwent an ovariectomy or sham-operation, using in vivo MRI biomarkers. An increase in osmoregulation and energy metabolism biomarkers in the hypothalamus, a decrease in white matter integrity, and a decrease in the resting-state functional connectivity was observed in ovariectomized TG mice compared to sham-operated TG mice. In addition, we observed an increase in functional connectivity in ovariectomized WT mice compared to sham-operated WT mice. Furthermore, genotype (TG vs. WT) effects on imaging markers and GFAP immunoreactivity levels were observed, but there was no effect of interaction (Genotype × Surgery) on amyloid-beta-and GFAP immunoreactivity levels. Taken together, our results indicated that both genotype and ovariectomy alters imaging biomarkers associated with AD.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; Astrocytes; Diffusion Tensor Imaging; Tg2576 mice; amyloid-beta (Aβ); functional connectivity; human APP Swedish; magnetic resonance spectroscopy; ovarian hormones; ovariectomy; resting state fMRI.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alzheimer Disease / diagnostic imaging*
  • Alzheimer Disease / etiology
  • Alzheimer Disease / genetics
  • Alzheimer Disease / psychology*
  • Animals
  • Biomarkers
  • Brain Chemistry*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Executive Function*
  • Genotype
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Ovariectomy / adverse effects*
  • Placebos
  • Risk Factors
  • Time Factors
  • White Matter / diagnostic imaging
  • White Matter / metabolism*
  • White Matter / physiopathology*


  • Biomarkers
  • Placebos