Cutaneous mast cells mediate numerous skin inflammatory processes and have anatomical and functional associations with sensory afferent neurons. We reveal that epidermal nerve endings from a subset of sensory nonpeptidergic neurons expressing MrgprD are reduced by the absence of Langerhans cells. Loss of epidermal innervation or ablation of MrgprD-expressing neurons increased expression of a mast cell gene module, including the activating receptor, Mrgprb2, resulting in increased mast cell degranulation and cutaneous inflammation in multiple disease models. Agonism of MrgprD-expressing neurons reduced expression of module genes and suppressed mast cell responses. MrgprD-expressing neurons released glutamate which was increased by MrgprD agonism. Inhibiting glutamate release or glutamate receptor binding yielded hyperresponsive mast cells with a genomic state similar to that in mice lacking MrgprD-expressing neurons. These data demonstrate that MrgprD-expressing neurons suppress mast cell hyperresponsiveness and skin inflammation via glutamate release, thereby revealing an unexpected neuroimmune mechanism maintaining cutaneous immune homeostasis.
Keywords: Langerhans cell; Mas-related G protein receptors; MrgprB2; MrgprD; S. aureus, beta-alanine; glutamate; kainate receptors; mast cell; neuroimmunology; nonpeptidergic neurons; skin.
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