HIV infection and multiple sclerosis: a case with unexpected "no evidence of disease activity" status

J Int Med Res. 2021 Mar;49(3):300060521999577. doi: 10.1177/0300060521999577.


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system whose etiology remains unclear. It has been suggested that MS can be triggered by certain viruses; however, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with reduced incidence of MS. We present the case of a young patient diagnosed with active relapsing-remitting MS whose clinical course substantially improved following HIV infection and treatment. The patient achieved no evidence of disease activity status without any disease-modifying drugs. Both HIV-induced immunosuppression and antiretroviral therapy may have attenuated the clinical course in this patient.

Keywords: Epstein–Barr virus; Multiple sclerosis; highly active antiretroviral therapy; human endogenous retrovirus; human immunodeficiency virus; immunosuppression; no evidence of disease activity.

MeSH terms

  • HIV Infections* / complications
  • HIV Infections* / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Multiple Sclerosis* / drug therapy
  • Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting*
  • Viruses*