The pathways that lead to the development of tissue-resident lymphocytes, including liver type 1 innate lymphoid cells (ILC1s), remain unclear. We show here that the adult mouse liver contains Lin-Sca-1+Mac-1+ hematopoietic stem cells derived from the fetal liver. This population includes Lin-CD122+CD49a+ progenitors that can generate liver ILC1s but not conventional natural killer cells. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production by the liver ILC1s themselves promotes the development of these cells in situ, through effects on their IFN-γR+ liver progenitors. Thus, an IFN-γ-dependent loop drives liver ILC1 development in situ, highlighting the contribution of extramedullary hematopoiesis to regional immune composition within the liver.
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