Analysis of data obtained by linking the 1960 Swedish Census and the Swedish Cancer Registry has demonstrated an increased risk of pleural mesothelioma among pulp and paper workers. The present study was undertaken with the aim of revealing possible environmental risk factors. The work histories of the 25 cases identified earlier were reviewed. "Certain" or "probable" exposure to asbestos was found among 70% of these workers. The study illustrates how linkage of official registers can be used to identify new risk environments and encourage the establishment of preventive measures.