Objective: To assess the relationship of urinary concentrations of ethylenethiourea (ETU), the main degradation product of ethylene bis-dithiocarbamate fungicides, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), a common metabolite of many pyrethroids, and 1-naphthol (1N), a metabolite of the carbamate insecticide carbaryl, with hormone concentrations in adolescent males; and to examine interactions between pesticide metabolites and polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, including CYP2C19 and CYP2D6, in relation to hormone concentrations.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 134 males from the Spanish Environment and Childhood (INMA)-Granada cohort. Urine and serum samples were collected from participants during the same clinical visit at the age of 15-17 years. First morning urine void was analyzed for concentrations of ETU, 3-PBA, and 1N. Serum was analyzed for concentrations of reproductive hormones (testosterone, 17β-estradiol [E2], dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate [DHEAS], sex hormone binding globulin [SHBG], luteinizing hormone [LH], follicle stimulating hormone [FSH], anti-Müllerian hormone [AMH], and prolactin), thyroid hormones (free thyroxine [FT4], total triiodothyronine [TT3], and thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH]), insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and cortisol. CYP2C19 G681A and CYP2D6 G1846A polymorphisms were determined in blood from 117 participants. Multiple linear regression, interaction terms, and stratified analyses were performed.
Results: Urinary ETU was detected in 74.6% of participants, 1N in 38.1%, and 3-PBA in 19.4%. Positive associations between detectable 3-PBA and TT3 and between detectable 1N and DHEAS were found, and marginally-significant associations of 1N with reduced E2 and FSH were observed. Poor CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 metabolizers (GA and AA genotype carriers) showed a greater increase in DHEAS for detected versus undetected 1N compared with GG genotype carriers. Poor CYP2D6 metabolizers (1846 GA and AA genotypes) evidenced increased cortisol for detected versus undetected ETU.
Conclusions: The associations observed between urinary pesticide metabolites and altered thyroid and reproductive hormones are novel and should be verified in studies with larger sample size. Further research on gene-environment interactions is warranted to establish individual susceptibility to pesticides and the risk of adverse health effects.
Keywords: Fungicides; Gene-environment interaction; Non-persistent pesticides; Pyrethroids; Reproductive hormones; Thyroid hormones.
Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.