Risk of HCC With Hepatitis B Viremia Among HIV/HBV-Coinfected Persons in North America

Hepatology. 2021 Sep;74(3):1190-1202. doi: 10.1002/hep.31839. Epub 2021 Jun 22.


Background and aims: Chronic HBV is the predominant cause of HCC worldwide. Although HBV coinfection is common in HIV, the determinants of HCC in HIV/HBV coinfection are poorly characterized. We examined the predictors of HCC in a multicohort study of individuals coinfected with HIV/HBV.

Approach and results: We included persons coinfected with HIV/HBV within 22 cohorts of the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (1995-2016). First occurrence of HCC was verified by medical record review and/or cancer registry. We used multivariable Cox regression to determine adjusted HRs (aHRs [95% CIs]) of factors assessed at cohort entry (age, sex, race, body mass index), ever during observation (heavy alcohol use, HCV), or time-updated (HIV RNA, CD4+ percentage, diabetes mellitus, HBV DNA). Among 8,354 individuals coinfected with HIV/HBV (median age, 43 years; 93% male; 52.4% non-White), 115 HCC cases were diagnosed over 65,392 person-years (incidence rate, 1.8 [95% CI, 1.5-2.1] events/1,000 person-years). Risk factors for HCC included age 40-49 years (aHR, 1.97 [1.22-3.17]), age ≥50 years (aHR, 2.55 [1.49-4.35]), HCV coinfection (aHR, 1.61 [1.07-2.40]), and heavy alcohol use (aHR, 1.52 [1.04-2.23]), while time-updated HIV RNA >500 copies/mL (aHR, 0.90 [0.56-1.43]) and time-updated CD4+ percentage <14% (aHR, 1.03 [0.56-1.90]) were not. The risk of HCC was increased with time-updated HBV DNA >200 IU/mL (aHR, 2.22 [1.42-3.47]) and was higher with each 1.0 log10 IU/mL increase in time-updated HBV DNA (aHR, 1.18 [1.05-1.34]). HBV suppression with HBV-active antiretroviral therapy (ART) for ≥1 year significantly reduced HCC risk (aHR, 0.42 [0.24-0.73]).

Conclusion: Individuals coinfected with HIV/HBV on ART with detectable HBV viremia remain at risk for HCC. To gain maximal benefit from ART for HCC prevention, sustained HBV suppression is necessary.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Alcoholism / epidemiology
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / epidemiology*
  • Coinfection
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology*
  • Hepatitis B, Chronic / epidemiology*
  • Hepatitis C, Chronic / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • North America
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Viremia / epidemiology*

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