Sliding-mode-based controllers for automation of blood glucose concentration for type 1 diabetes

IET Syst Biol. 2021 Apr;15(2):72-82. doi: 10.1049/syb2.12015.


Destruction of β-cells in pancreas causes deficiency in insulin production that leads to diabetes in the human body. To cope with this problem, insulin is either taken orally during the day or injected into the patient's body using artificial pancreas (AP) during sleeping hours. Some mathematical models indicate that AP uses control algorithms to regulate blood glucose concentration (BGC). The extended Bergman minimal model (EBMM) incorporates, as a state variable, the disturbance in insulin level during medication due to either meal intake or burning sugar by engaging in physical exercise. In this research work, EBMM and proposed finite time robust controllers are used, including the sliding mode controller (SMC), backstepping SMC (BSMC) and supertwisting SMC (second-order SMC or SOSMC) for automatic stabilisation of BGC in type 1 diabetic patients. The proposed SOSMC diminishes the chattering phenomenon which appears in the conventional SMC. The proposed BSMC is a recursive technique which becomes robust by the addition of the SMC. Lyapunov theory has been used to prove the asymptotic stability of the proposed controllers. Simulations have been carried out in MATLAB/Simulink for the comparative study of the proposed controllers under varying data of six different type 1 diabetic patients available in the literature.

MeSH terms

  • Automation
  • Blood Glucose
  • Computer Simulation
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1*
  • Humans
  • Pancreas, Artificial*


  • Blood Glucose