Objectives: Emergency department (ED) patients with serious skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are often hospitalized to receive intravenous (IV) antibiotics. Appropriate patients may avoid admission following a single-dose, long-acting IV antibiotic.
Methods: We conducted a preintervention versus postintervention design trial at 11 U.S. EDs comparing hospitalization rates under usual care to those using a clinical pathway that included a single IV dalbavancin dose. We enrolled adults with cellulitis, abscess, or wound infection with an infected area of ≥75 cm2 without other indications for hospitalization. Clinical pathway participants discharged from the ED received a 24-hour follow-up telephone call and had a 48- to 72-hour in-person visit. We hypothesized that, compared to usual care, the clinical pathway would result in a significant reduction in the initial hospitalization rate.
Results: Of 156 and 153 participants in usual care and clinical pathway periods, median infection areas were 255.0 (interquartile range [IQR] = 150.0 to 500.0) cm2 and 289.0 (IQR = 161.3 to 555.0) cm2 , respectively. During their initial care, 60 (38.5%) usual care participants were hospitalized and 27 (17.6%) pathway participants were hospitalized (difference = 20.8 percentage points [PP], 95% confidence interval [CI] = 10.4 to 31.2 PP). Over 44 days, 70 (44.9%) usual care and 44 (28.8%) pathway participants were hospitalized (difference = 16.1 PP, 95% CI = 4.9 to 27.4 PP).
Conclusions: Implementation of an ED SSTI clinical pathway for patient selection and follow-up that included use of a single-dose, long-acting IV antibiotic was associated with a significant reduction in hospitalization rate for stable patients with moderately severe infections. Registration: NCT02961764.
Keywords: abscess; antibacterial agents; cellulitis; critical pathways; dalbavancin; emergency department; health resources; hospital; hospitalization; infectious; skin diseases; wound infection.
© 2021 The Authors. Academic Emergency Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.