COVID-19 and syndemic challenges in 'Battling the Big Three': HIV, TB and malaria

Int J Infect Dis. 2021 May:106:29-32. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2021.03.071. Epub 2021 Mar 26.


Indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic have the potential to seriously undermine the health system in sub-Saharan Africa with an increase in the incidences of malaria, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV infections. Based on current evidence in the African region the collateral impact of COVID-19 on the "big three diseases" shall be addressed in the following.

Keywords: COVID-19; Challenges; HIV; Impact; Malaria; TB.

MeSH terms

  • Africa South of the Sahara / epidemiology
  • COVID-19 / epidemiology*
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Malaria / epidemiology*
  • Pandemics
  • Syndemic*
  • Tuberculosis / epidemiology*