Tricholoma matsutake is an ectomycorrhizal fungus that has a symbiotic relationship with the root of Pinus densiflora. Soil microbial communities greatly affect the growth of T. matsutake, however, few studies have examined the characteristics of these communities. In the present study, we analyzed soil fungal communities from Gyeongju and Yeongdeok using metagenomic pyrosequencing to investigate differences in fungal species diversity, richness, and taxonomic composition between the soil under T. matsutake fruiting bodies (Sample 2) and soil where the fairy ring of T. matsutake was no longer present (Sample 1). The same spot was investigated three times at intervals of four months to observe changes in the community. In the samples from Yeongdeok, the number of valid reads was lower than that at Gyeongju. The operational taxonomic units of most Sample 2 groups were less than those of Sample 1 groups, indicating that fungal diversity was low in the T. matsutakedominant soil. The soil under the T. matsutake fruiting bodies was dominated by more than 51% T. matsutake. From fall to the following spring, the ratio of T. matsutake decreased. Basidiomycota was the dominant phylum in most samples. G-F1-2, G-F2-2, and Y-F1-2 had the genera Tricholoma, Umbelopsis, Oidiodendron, Sagenomella, Cladophialophora, and Phialocephala in common. G-F1-1, G-F2-1, and Y-F1-1 had 10 genera including Umbelopsis and Sagenomella in common. From fall to the following spring, the amount of phyla Basidiomycota and Mucoromycota gradually decreased but that of phylum Ascomycota increased. We suggest that the genus Umbelopsis is positively related to T. matsutake.
Keywords: Fungal community; Tricholoma matsutake; metagenomics.